Definitons and explanations - POPULATION
Definitions and explanations contents
Usual residence is the settlement in which a person spends
the daily period of rest.
Inhabitants are people whose usual
residence is the place of enumeration (have their households there) and
up to the reference date were not absent from the household more than a
Comparing the 2002 Census data with the data collected with previous
censuses, one needs to take into account that the definition of the
population changed. Data after World War II (from 1948 to 1991) took
into account population with permanent residence in Slovenia (de iure).
Taken into account were people who declared that they have permanent
residence in the place of enumeration, irrespective of whether they were
temporarily absent at the time of the census. Temporarily absent people
were those who were absent for a short time and also those who were
working abroad and family members who were living with them abroad
(migrant workers), irrespective of the duration of their work or stay
At the 2002 Census we took into account international recommendations
for censuses according to which a country's population are only those
people who actually live in its territory. A person’s citizenship is not
important, so that the inhabitants of Slovenia are both citizens of
Slovenia and foreigners.
The most important difference between the definition of the population
at the 1991 Census and at the 2002 Census is that in the latter people
who have permanent or temporary residence in Slovenia but have been
living abroad for over a year are no longer considered to be the
population of Slovenia. In addition, at the 2002 Census we took into
account for the first time the duration of stay in Slovenia, so that the
population of Slovenia are also those immigrants who have been living in
Slovenia for at least a year, irrespective of whether they have a
registered residence in Slovenia or not.
At the 2002 Census we considered people who live in certain institutions
(e.g. old people's homes) as residents of the settlement in which the
institution in located, while at the 1991 Census they were considered as
residents of the settlement of their permanent residence.
Data on the population of Slovenia at 1971, 1981 and 1991 censuses were
recalculated so that the number of persons who were temporarily living
abroad at the time of the census (migrant workers) was subtracted from
the total population. At the 1953 and 1961 censuses the category of
migrant workers did not exist. Data were recalculated only for Slovenia.
Because of administrative spatial changes in Slovenia in the last 30
years, we did not recalculate the data for smaller spatial units. At the
1971 Census there were 48,086 migrant workers, at the 1981 Census 53,483
and at the 1991 Census 52,631.
present are people who:
||have their usual residence (household)
in another place in Slovenia, but were temporarily present in the
place of the interview because of work, schooling, family or other
||have no usual residence in Slovenia
because they have been living in Slovenia for less than a year and
their usual residence a year before the census was in a foreign
Absent for over a year because of living abroad
are persons who have registered residence in Slovenia but for reasons of
employment at a foreign employer or self-employment, schooling, family
or other reasons have been living abroad for over a year.
Citizenship is permanent legal relationship of a person
towards the country which acknowledges this person’s special legal
Age is the time a person has lived between his or her birth
and the census reference date (31 March). It is expressed in completed
years of age.
Mean age is a weighted
arithmetic mean of the age of a given group of population. In this issue
of Rapid Reports mean age is calculated from one-year age groups.
Ageing index is the ratio
between the old population (aged 65 and over) and the young population
(aged 0–14) multiplied by 100.
Marital status is a legal
condition which defines the relationship of a person towards other
persons. It is decisive whether or not a person has been married before.
With regard to that a person can be: single, married, widowed or
Ethnic affiliation and religion
Compared to previous censuses, at the 2002 Census collecting data on
ethnic affiliation and religion was slightly changed. According to
provisions of Article 10 of the Act Regulating the Census of Population,
Households and Housings in the Republic of Slovenia (OJ RS 66/2000,
26/2001), all people aged 14 and over had to declare their ethnic
affiliation and religion THEMSELVES.
For children younger than 14 the answer could be given by their parents,
adopters or guardians.
The question was intended for all persons. The interviewer had to read
or show to the respondents the options and warn them that they need not
declare their ethnic affiliation and religion. The answer to the
question on ethnic affiliation and religion had to be marked or entered
exactly as given by the respondent.
For household members who on the census reference date (31 March 2002)
were at least 14 years old but were absent from the household at the
time of the interview or the interviewer’s visit or did not want to
declare their ethnic affiliation and religion in the presence of other
household members or the interviewer, the data on ethnic affiliation and
religion were collected with the Statement on
the Nationality/Ethnicity and Religion (P-3/NV
questionnaire), which was left by the interviewer together with the
envelope in the household. In this way every person could fill in the
Statement on the Nationality/Ethnicity and Religion and send it to the
Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Sending of the Statement
on the Nationality/Ethnicity and Religion was not obligatory. The office
took into account only those Statements on the Nationality/Ethnicity and
Religion that were signed.
Ethnic affiliation is
being a member of a nation or an ethnic group. In accordance with the
constitutional principles of the equality of nations and ethnic groups,
a person has the right to declare his or her ethnic affiliation
(Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia, OJ RS 33/91-I, Article 61).
The question on ethnic affiliation was asked in all censuses after World
War II. In 1953 and 1961 censuses for children younger than 10 and in
1971, 1981 and 1991 censuses for children younger than 15 the answers
were provided by their parents or other representatives (guardians,
adopters). For persons who were absent at the time of the interviewer’s
visit, in the past censuses the answer on ethnic affiliation could be
provided by an adult member of the household.
In individual censuses the same classification was used for processing
the data on ethnic affiliation, but it was supplemented with new answers
on ethnic affiliation. One needs to take into account methodological
differences in people declaring themselves as Muslims, Yugoslavs and
Bosniacs, and people declaring themselves by regional affiliation.
People who regarded themselves as Muslims in the sense of ethnic and not
religious affiliation could declare themselves Muslims for the first
time in 1961. Before 1961 they were declared as “Yugoslavs –
undeclared”. At the 1961 Census people who did not give detailed ethnic
affiliation could give the answer “Yugoslavs – ethnically undeclared”.
The same answer was recorded for those who stated regional affiliation
(such as Upper Carniolan, Dalmatian, etc.). In 1971 a classification was
adopted which suited constitutional provisions on the equality of all
nations and ethnic groups and the right of people to declare their
ethnic affiliation, including the right not to do so. According to the
classification valid at 1981, 1991 and 2002 censuses, the population is
classified into two groups by ethnic affiliation:
With the creation of independent states in the territory
of former Yugoslavia, the classification of ethnically declared
population includes Bosniacs. This term was introduced by the
Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1994. Among
ethnically declared we still show Muslims, who declared so in the sense
of ethnic and not religious affiliation.
People shown as ethnically undeclared are:
||Bosnians (in the past censuses they
were shown as regionally declared);
||regionally declared (e.g. Istrians,
||others (people who preferred to be
In censuses after World War II the data on religion were collected only
in 1953, 1991 and 2002. At the 1953 Census the data on religion were
given to the interviewer’s by parents or other legal representatives
(guardians, adopters) for children younger than 14 and at the 1991
Census for children younger than 15. For persons absent at the time of
the interviewer’s visit, in the past censuses the answer on religion
could be provided by an adult member of the household.
For determining religion only the attitude towards religion was
important and not whether or not the person is officially registered as
a member of a religious community. Religious conviction of a person was
also not important.
In 1991 the answers on religion were merged into 11 main groups. The
answers collected with the 2002 Census are merged into 14 groups.
Compared to 1991, new groups were Evangelical, other Christian religions
At 1991 and 2002 censuses, people who did not want to declare their
||answer that they do not belong to any
religion, although they are believers;
||answer that they do not belong to any
religion because they are not believers (atheists);
||decide not to answer the question on
Mother tongue is the
language that a person learned in his or her early childhood in the
family or in another primary environment if the child lived at
relatives, in institutions, etc. If a person learned several languages
in his or her childhood, mother tongue is the language which the person
identifies as his or her mother tongue.
With the creation of independent states in the territory of former
Yugoslavia, the names of languages changed. In Croatia Croatian is
spoken, in Serbia Serbian is spoken, while in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are spoken. In Montenegro a version of
Serbian is spoken, although the name Montenegrin is also used.
Every respondent could decide on his or her mother tongue freely.
Therefore, the classification valid at previous censuses was
supplemented with new answers, including the Montenegrin, Bosnian and
Bosniac languages. The data on the last two languages are shown as the
Bosnian language. We kept the Serbo-Croatian language in the
classification because this answer was very frequent.
First residence is the
settlement (in Slovenia or abroad) in which the mother of the person had
her residence when the person was born.
Immigrants are people who had their first residence outside
Slovenia and have been living in Slovenia for at least a year.
The definition of immigrants at the 2002 Census differs from the
definition used at 1961-1991 censuses. At 1961-1991 censuses the data on
immigration from abroad were derived from the data on the last migration
(country in which a person had residence before immigrating to
Slovenia). Immigrants were also people who had their first residence in
Slovenia but emigrated and later on returned to Slovenia
(re-emigration). Those people who had their first residence outside
Slovenia and after immigrating to Slovenia moved to another settlement
in Slovenia (internal migration) were not shown as immigrants. At
1961-1991 censuses the minimum one-year time period of residence was not
taken into account.
Household reference person
is a household member aged 15 years or over selected by the household
members themselves with the purpose to determine relations to other
Relation to the household reference person
is relation between the reference person and a household member.
status determines whether a household member belongs to the
family or not and the types of families. Family members are defined on
the basis of generations. The first generation is composed of spouse,
cohabitant and lone father or lone mother. It is not important that
children (second generation) are natural descendants of family members
of the first generation.
migration is a characteristic of a
migration with regard to the boundaries of the territory (international
migration and internal migration) and with regard to the observed
territory (migration between settlements in a municipality, migration
between municipalities, migration between statistical regions).
migration is the basic motive or
prevailing ground (e.g. employment, buying a dwelling, marriage) why the
migrant changed the last usual residence.
spoken language is the
language used for communication between household or family members
(verbal or writing). A person can use one, two or more languages. If a
person uses three or more languages, he/she had to determine the two
most commonly used.
live-born children is the total number of children born alive
regardless of whether they are living or dead. Stillborn children are
of live-born children per
woman is the ratio between the total
number of all live-born children and the number of women aged 15 and
over. Women who have not (yet) given birth are included.
Temporarily absent are
inhabitants absent less than one year who:
- were absent at the critical moment of enumeration accidentally;
- because of work, schooling, family or other reasons temporarily live
in another settlement in Slovenia or abroad.
is a person who immigrated to the place of residence from another
settlement in Slovenia or from abroad.
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