Crop production, Slovenia, 2020

Abundant 2020 harvest of most crops

In 2020, Slovenian farmers harvested, according to provisional data, 17% more cereals for grain, 35% more potatoes and 19% more dry fodder than in the previous year. The harvest of fruits in orchards and grapes in vineyards was also excellent. 

  • 29 March 2021 at 10:30
  • |
  • provisional data
Excellent harvest of stubble cereals, total output of maize for grains by 19% heavier than in 2019

According to provisional data on agricultural production, the 2020 harvest was slightly better by almost all cereals than in 2019. Total output of our main bread cereal wheat and spelt weighed 158,131 tons, which is by 13% more than in 2019. The area sown with this cereal increased by 2%. Average yield of wheat was 5.9 tons per hectare and of spelt 2.6 tons per hectare. Rye and maslin (mixed sowing of rye and wheat) was sown on 827 hectares of arable land, which is by 30% smaller area than in 2019. Average yield was by 8% heavier (4.1 tons per hectare).
Among area sown with fodder cereals, maize for grains is still predominant. In 2020, it was sown on 39,836 hectares and for the first time since we started to monitor yields in independent Slovenia yielded more than 10 tons per hectare (10.8). The total output was 429,925 tons or by 19% more than in the previous year. The second most common fodder grain, to which we dedicate more land every year, is barley. In 2020, it was sown on 22,212 hectares and yielded excellent. Total output weighed 122,214 tons or 5.5 tons per hectare.
Oats is the least common among fodder cereals. Compared to 2019, it was cultivated on by a third smaller area (809 hectares). The total output was also smaller by a third; it weighed 2,718 tons. Average yield of oats was 3.4 tons per hectare, which is comparable to the previous harvest (3.3 tons per hectare).

Buckwheat and millet for grain most often as secondary crops

In Slovenia, buckwheat is traditionally sown as a secondary crop, after other crops were harvested (most common after barley or early potato). In regular sowing in spring 2020, it was sown on 549 hectares of arable land, which yielded 1.0 ton per hectare on average. A much larger area was sown with buckwheat in summer (secondary sowing), when 3,631 hectares was sown and harvested. The total output of buckwheat grain was 2,975 tons (by 48% more than in 2019).
Buckwheat is a good bee pasture, especially in the period when there is not much other bee food available. It enriches the soil and prevents weeding of fields. Therefore, slightly more areas were sown with buckwheat than shown in the statistics; however, since the yield from some areas was not harvested (green manure), such areas were not taken into account in our statistics.
Millet was sown on 106 hectares in regular sowing (by 7% more than in 2019) and in secondary sowing on 234 hectares (by 31% more). According to provisional data, both sowings yielded well and comparable to 2019.

Dry pulses sown on slightly smaller area than in 2019, also yielded a bit less

The total output of field peas was 932 tons from 336 hectares of arable land (by 13% smaller area than in 2019). The total output was despite better yield (by 8%) compared to 2019 lighter by 7%. Beans for grain yielded a bit less (2.1 tons per hectare) compared to last year’s exceptional harvest (2.4 tons per hectare), but still by 15% more compared to the last 10-year average. The total output weighed 1,318 tons.

Exceptional potato harvest

2020 was favourable for potato production. Potato was grown on 2,941 hectares of arable land, which is by 5% larger area than in 2019. Most of the area was intended for growing late potato varieties (92% of area), only 215 hectares was intended for early potatoes (7% of area) and 26 hectares for seed potato production (0.9% of area). All varieties yielded excellent. The total output of late potatoes was 83,774 tons or 31 tons per hectare, which is the highest yield since we started to monitor yields in independent Slovenia. Early varieties yielded a bit less (21.7 tons per hectare) and seed potatoes 24.7 tons per hectare. The total output of all potato varieties was 89,078 tons or by 35% more than in 2019.

Larger area sown with industrial crops than in 2019

Area sown with oil crops, our most common industrial crops, was by 12% larger than in 2019. Area sown with pumpkins for oil increased the most (by 27%), together they grew on 4,169 hectares of arable land and yielded 700 kilos of dry pumpkin seeds per hectare. Rape and turnip rape were cultivated on 3,320 hectares (by 2% larger area than in 2019) with average yield of 2.6 tons per hectare (by 10% less than in 2019). Soy was cultivated on 1,639 hectares (by 14% larger area than in 2019) and also yielded better (3.1 tons per hectare or by 3% better). The total output of dry soybean kernels was 5,017 tons.
2,723 tons of hops was produced (6% more), although it was harvested from a smaller area than in 2019 (1,489 hectares or by 8% smaller area). Slovenian hop producers harvested 1.8 tons per hectare of dry hop cones.

More than 1.5 million tons of fresh maize for silage and almost 2 million tons of dry hay was produced

Maize for silage yielded excellent. In main sowing, 1,451,208 tons of green mass was harvested from 27,801 hectares and additional 72,003 tons in secondary sowing. In total, last year’s output was up by 9%. As a main crop, maize for silage yielded a record 52.2 tons per hectare.
Also all other fodder from arable land and permanent grassland exceeded the 2019 harvest (by 19%). Clovers and lucerne was sown a bit less (by 8%). Together they were cut on 7,820 hectares and yielded similar as in 2019 (6.9 tons per hectare).
Grasses, grass-clover and clover-grass mixtures were cultivated on 26,831 hectares, from which 193,243 tons of dry hay was harvested. Most of dry hay came from permanent grassland. From almost 280,000 hectares, on average 6.1 tons per hectare, or in total 1,713,033 tons of dry hay was harvested.

Vegetables were grown on 7,116 hectares of production area

Vegetables were produced on 5,767 hectares of arable land. Since this area can be harvested and resown with vegetables several times in the same year, the total production area of vegetables was 7,116 hectares. In total, 137,227 tons of vegetables was produced on this area, or which 85,275 tons was destined for the market. The total output of vegetables consists of white cabbage (16%) and lettuce (11%), followed by fruit crops and bulbs: onions (9%), tomatoes (8%) and pumpkins (5%).

Abundant harvest of late fruits and grapes; change in monitoring the number of trees in extensive orchards on agricultural holdings

An abundant harvest of late fruits in the orchards plantations was recorded. 66,668 tons of apples were collected or on average 30.5 tons per hectare of orchard plantation. 32% more pears were collected than in 2019: in total 3,884 tons or 17.1 tons per hectare. Cherries also yielded abundantly, with average yield of 9.2 tons per hectare, almost tripled compared to 2019. 974 tons of walnuts and 3,098 tons of olives were harvested. We had an excellent harvest of all late fruits. It was slightly different for early fruit species: peaches and nectarines were harvested almost half as much as in 2019 (in total 2,031 tons) and apricots 469 tons (by 49% less than in 2019).
In the monitoring of fruit in extensive orchards, there was a change in 2020, so the data on the number of trees are not directly comparable with previous years. In the past, we monitored the production of all trees on agricultural holdings, and from 2020 on we monitor only trees planted in extensive plantations (extensive orchards). If the agricultural holding does not have such plantations, other trees (outside extensive plantations) are no longer taken into account.
The harvest in extensive orchards was also excellent. The apple trees borne on average 48.5 kilograms of apples per tree, pears 33.5 kilograms per tree, plums 16.5 kilograms per tree and walnuts 11.1 kilograms per tree. Worse than in 2019 yielded only apricots (6.4 kilograms per tree or by 62% less) and peaches and nectarines (11.5 kilograms per tree).
Vineyards yielded similar as in the previous year, on average 6.8 tons per hectare. White wine varieties yielded slightly better than red wine varieties. In total, the harvested was 74,349 tons of white grapes (7.0 tons per hectare) and 29,288 tons of red grapes (6.3 tons per hectare).
Yield of wheat and spelt and grain maize and corn-cob mix, Slovenia 1)
Yield of wheat and spelt and grain maize and corn-cob mix, Slovenia <sup> 1)</sup>
1) Year 2020 - provisional data
Source: SURS
Production of some crops and grapes, Slovenia 1)
Production of some crops and grapes, Slovenia <sup> 1)</sup>
1) Year 2020 - provisional data
Source: SURS
Production of grapes in vineyards and apples in orchard plantations, Slovenia 1)
Production of grapes in vineyards and apples in orchard plantations, Slovenia <sup> 1)</sup>
1) Year 2020 - provisional data
Source: SURS
Utilised agricultural area by crops, Slovenia
20192020 1) 2020
ha 2) index
Arable land174,202176,079101.1
Dried pulses, in grain equivalent1,02997995.1
Root crops3,0603,128102.2
Industrial plants10,44511,392109.1
Vegetables and strawberries 5,3195,906111.0
Flowers and ornamental plants3290281.3
Fodder from arable land56,69255,74598.3
Other arable crops40223458.2
  of that vegetable, herb and
strawberry seedlings
  of that seed37518048.0
Fallow land1,5011,19379.5
Permanent grassland 3)277,755279,298100.6
Land under permanent crops27,86528,516102.3
Total of fruit crops
(including wine and olives)
  of that orchards10,65311,615109.0
  of that vineyards15,54915,26598.2
  of that olive groves1,3741,417103.1
1) Provisional data
2) Some totals do not add up due to rounding.
3) Also common pastures are included. Area of common pastures is in 2019 - 8,808 ha and in 2020 - 8,162 ha .
Source: SURS
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