International youth day
In 2018, every second one at age 29 still lived in primary family, in 1991 only one in five
In 2018, most employed young people were working as service and sales workers. At age 29 four out of five were employed. Average income of 29-year-old employees with tertiary education exceeded the average income of employees with upper secondary education by 28%.
August 12 has been the day dedicated to young people all over the world since 1999. It is then that the United Nations declared this day the International Youth Day, with the aim to discuss each year different issues affecting young people, highlighting their important role in society in general. This year, the leading topic is youth engagement for global action at the local/community, national and global levels.
Number of young persons is decreasing
At the beginning of 2020, there were 310,000 young people in Slovenia, i.e. those aged 15–29. The number of 29-year-olds exceed by 29% the number of 15-year-olds. In the year when Slovenia won independence (1991) there were 430,000 (22.5%) young people, the maximum relative difference between the two generations did not exceed 15%. According to the latest projections, the minimum number of young persons will be reached after 2080 (280,000). The number of young persons will not decrease a lot compared to the decrease after independence.
Young persons at the time of independence and today
Young people are a very heterogeneous group of population with several turning points in their life cycle valid for one generation or more generations together. We compare the 1991 Census data with the 2018 Census data when there were 312,000 young persons (15.1%).
Which occupational groups are over- and under-represented by young people?
Almost one in five employed young persons was working as a professional or as a service and sales worker. The share of young people working as service and sales workers exceeded the most the share of all employed of this occupational group (by 32%). More young persons than average belong to four more occupational groups. On the other hand, two occupational groups prevail (skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers, and managers). Only 2.2% of young employees compared to 5.7% of all employees were working as managers. One of the goals of the International Youth Day 2020 is how representation of young people and their engagement in formal institutional politics can be significantly enhanced.
Life cycle of young persons aged 22 in 2011 by 2018
The generation aged 22 years at the beginning of 2011 consists of 26,516 persons, of whom 93% (24,764) were still living in Slovenia seven years later. 85 of them died and 1,667 emigrated abroad. More than half of emigrants were students in 2011. Most of them live in Austria, Germany, Switzerland, and Bosnia and Herzegovina (half of all emigrants).
Most (58%) of the 22-year-olds were students and their success in completing tertiary education in combination with their activity status highlighted an interesting picture of 29-year-olds before reaching adulthood. One in three students had not attained tertiary education by the beginning of 2018 and their unemployment rate (9.7%) was higher than the unemployment rate (8.7%) of all students from 2011. Out of 8,800 students with upper secondary degree 76% attained professional higher education (first Bologna cycle), while 16% attained master's or doctorate of science education (second or third Bologna cycle). There were 100 persons aged 29 with doctorate of science.
Besides, young people that were not students in 2011 improved their educational level. One in three from that group (10,448 persons) had better education in 2018: 38% completed general or technical upper secondary education, 14% attained second Bologna cycle education and 8% attained first Bologna cycle education.
Income of 29-year-olds
The income of 29-year-olds is comparable with the income of a few years older generations. Median annual gross income including taxable and non-taxable income (from employment or self-employment, unemployment benefits, family and social benefits, scholarships, interests) in 2018 for 29-year-olds was EUR 14,800, compared to EUR 15,700 for 34-year-olds. The main component of income in Slovenia is income from work (more than two thirds), so median gross income for 24-year-olds was EUR 9,200. Namely, fewer than half of 24-year-olds were employed.
Median annual gross income in 2018 for employed persons aged 29 was EUR 16,150, for the unemployed EUR 6,400, for students EUR 5,200 and for other non-active persons EUR 5,800.
Besides the activity status, the second basic determinant of income is education. Average annual income of a 29-year-old employee was EUR 17,400 in 2018, which is 8% more than median annual income. Only employees with at least the first cycle of professional higher education had an above average income. The difference in average income between employees with basic and upper secondary education is not significant (10%), while average income of employees with tertiary education exceeded the average income of employees with upper secondary education by 28%.