International Women's Day
International Women`s Day – celebrating economic, political and social equality of women
There are more than 363,500 women in employment in Slovenia, of these 92.0% are in paid employment and 8.0% are self-employed. Average monthly gross earnings for women are EUR 89 lower than for men. On average they are three years older than men. Women are more satisfied with their lives than men.
In December 1977, the UN General Assembly adopted a special resolution proclaiming March 8 the International Women`s Day, originally known as the International Day of Working Women. It is celebrated in many countries. This is the day of celebrating economic, political and social equality and women`s achievements in all areas. The day is also celebrated in memory of the Triangle Factory fire in which more than 140 women lost their lives.
Women in Slovenia
1,041,240 women accounted for 50.4% of all the residents in Slovenia (more than 2,064,600) on 1 October 2015. Women thus slightly outnumbred men.
The most common female names in Slovenia are Marija and Ana. The most common newborn girl`s name in 2014 was Eva.
In 2014 women gave birth to around 21,200 children in Slovenia. Today women decide to have children later in their lives, so the mean age of mothers at first childbirth in Slovenia in 2014 was 29.1 years, which was 4.3 years more than twenty years ago. Women`s right to decide freely on the number of children was written in the constitution in 1974.
Life expectancy for women is increasing. With unchanged mortality rates a girl born in 2014 in Slovenia can expect to live 83.7 years, which is almost six years longer than life expectancy for boys born in the same year. As regards female life expectancy, in 2013 Slovenia ranked 17th among EU-28 Member States. In the EU-28 in 2013 women could expect to live longest in Spain (86.1 years) and shortest in Bulgaria (78.6 years).
The mean age of women in Slovenia was 44.1 years in mid-2015 or three years longer than that of men (41.1 years). The mean age of all the residents of Slovenia was then 42,6 years. Women were on average older than men in all municipalities, except in Dobje, where the mean age of women and men was the same (41.3 years).
The mean age at death in 2014 was 80.9 years for women or 8.2 years more than for men. Diseases of the circulatory system were the leading cause of death for women, while for men the leading cause of death was cancer.
Women were 60% of the 18,400 people who graduated in 2014. Two out of three women graduated from social sciences.
There were around 3,200 female doctorate holders aged up to 69 years in Slovenia at the end of 2012 or 41% of all doctorate holders. Women started to be aware of the importance of knowledge very early. In 1906 Marija Urbas became the first Slovene woman with a PhD, i.e. a doctor of philosophy at the Graz University.
There were more than 363,500 women in employment in Slovenia at the end of 2015 (or 45.2% of all persons in employment); 92.0% of them were in paid employment and the rest were self-employed. 42.1% of women in employment had tertiary education.
Women dominated in 182 occupational groups in Slovenia at the end of 2015. Most of the women in employment were sales workers. In some occupations that used to be male dominated the share of women has been increasing: in December 2005 there were 13.4% female police officers in Slovenia; in December 2015, 3.4 percentage points more women were police officers.
The share of women in high-level occupations is still low, but it is on the increase. Ten years ago there were 21.8% of women among managing directors and chief executives; by the end of 2015 the share of women in this occupational group increased by 2.8 percentage points.
The registered unemployment rate was higher for women than for men in the last fifteen years, but the gap has been narrowing. In 2015 the registered unemployment rate for women was 13.7%, for men 11.1%. It was the lowest for women in Gorenjska (9.4%) and the highest in Pomurska (22.2%) statistical region.
On average, women in employment were in 2014 absent from work the longest due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system, slightly more than 3 days a year. On average, men in employment were absent from work the longest due to injury and poisoning (almost 4 days a year).
According to the provisional data of the annual structure of earnings statistics, in 2014 average monthly gross earnings of women amounted to EUR 1,589, which was on average 5% less than average monthly gross earnings of men (EUR 1,678). In 2014, the gap in average monthly gross earnings was the highest (in favour of men) in financial and insurance activities, i.e. by 25.3% or EUR 699. Because these are average values, the reason for differences is also in different educational, occupational and age structure.
Women had the higher gross earnings in three activities, i.e. in electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (by 16.4% or EUR 244), in construction (by 14.9% or EUR 186) and in transportation and storage (by 11.5% or EUR 167). In these three activities women were in minority and they mainly had better paid jobs.
Women in Slovenia are mostly at greater risk of being in poverty than men. In 2014, the at-risk-of-poverty rate for women was 15.2% in Slovenia (among men: 13.7%; in the entire Slovenia: 14.5%; in EU-28: 17.2%). The highest at-risk-of-poverty rate for women in the EU-28 was recorded in Romania (25.2%) and the lowest in the Czech Republic (10.5%). In Slovenia women aged 65+ were in the worst position; 21.6% of them were living below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold. The at-risk-of-poverty rate of unemployed women in 2014 was 46.2%. Since 2005 it has increased by 20.1 percentage points.
More women than men live part of their lives in old people`s homes. In 2013 three out of four of the 17,700 residents of old people`s homes were women. The most frequent reason for admission in old people`s homes was illness.
In the 2010-2014 period there were on average 1,600 victims of physical and/or sexual violence in Slovenia per year. On average around 200 women per year reported sexual violence in the broader sense. The Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) survey in 2012 shows that physical and/or sexual violence after age 15 was experienced by 33% or 62 million women in Europe. Police data indicate that according to the reported cases women are most often victims of domestic violence.
According to the European Commission, the share of women in parliament decreased in 2013 and increased in 2014 (from 33% to 38%). Since 2012 the share of women in the Slovene parliament has been above the EU average (28%). Universal suffrage was enacted in 1945, which means that every adult citizen can stand for election and vote, regardless of the gender or religion.
Self-assessment of overall life satisfaction women in Slovenia indicates that women are more satisfied than men (according to the Survey on Living Conditions (SILC in 2013), yet they are slightly less satisfied with time use. Self-assessment of overall satisfaction shows that on average women are more satisfied with their jobs and with commuting time. Both genders, women and men, have someone to talk to about their personal matters.
A new publication on women and men
On the International Women’s Day SURS will publish a new brochure entitled »Kako sva si različna. Ženske in moški od otroštva do starosti«. Its English version entitled “Simply Not the Same – Women and Men from Childhood to Old Age” will be released a bit later. One of the infographics from the brochure is published here.