In 2014, 1,599 works of literature were published in Slovenia, which is an increase of more than 34% over the previous year: 804 of them were Slovenian works and 795 were translated works.
8 February, the Prešeren Day, has been celebrated as the Slovenian Cultural Day since 1945; it became a national holiday in 1946.
Cultural output in 2014
Cultural activity in Slovenia in 2014 is best described by official statistical data:
- 4,748 performances in Slovenian theatres were attended by about 745,400 people;
- Professional orchestras and choirs held 120 concerts at their headquarters, which were attended by 84,000 people; in addition they held 239 concerts on tours;
- Houses of culture organised 12,014 events, most of them theatrical, film and choir concerts; these cultural events were attended by more than 3 million people;
- Museums, galleries and exhibition grounds organised 2,776 exhibitions, which were seen by about 3.1 million people;
- 48 cinemas in Slovenia were visited by about 1.9 million cinemagoers.
In 2014, 5,554 titles of books and brochures were issued in Slovenia, which is 9% more than a year earlier; 1,599 of them were works of literature, 804 of them were Slovenian works and 795 were translated works. Among all titles issued in the past four decades (1974–2014), the share of works of literature was between 16% and over 27%; in 2014, works of literature accounted for almost 29% of all books issued, which was the highest share ever.
Chart 1: Titles of books and brochures issued, Slovenia
1) For 1982 no data on works of literature are available.
As regards the occupation of a writer – which includes people writing books, scripts, storyboards, plays, essays, speeches, manuals, poems, fairy tales, reviews, etc. – not many official statistical data are available. In 2014, the Statistical Register of Employment included 284 people (for comparison: the Slovene Writers’ Association has 314 members) who performed this occupation as their main occupation and participated in compulsory social insurance:
- 98 (34.5%) of them were employed (70% of them female writers) and
- 186 (65.5%) of them were self-employed (just over half of them female writers).
61% of writers were female and 39% were male. 76% of them had tertiary education, 23% had upper secondary education and 1% had basic education or less (only male writers). Most of the employed writers were 35–44 years old. Their gender structure was as follows: 3 male writers and 18 female writers were 25–29 years old; in the age group 30–44 most of the writers were female, while in higher ages most of the writers were male.
And how much did they earn? Because the survey on earnings by occupations covers only a small share of employed writers who were performing this occupation for the whole year, the data are only informative: in 2014, average monthly earnings of writers were just over EUR 1,930 (average monthly gross earnings in Slovenia amounted to EUR 1,540); male writers were receiving on average around EUR 1,700 and female writers just over EUR 2,020.
How much money is spent on culture?
In the past 15 years (from 1999 on) the government of Slovenia was spending on cultural services – i.e. libraries, museums, galleries, theatres, concert, stage and film production, artistic events, etc. – between 0.7% of GDP (only in 2007) and 0.9% of GDP (in 2009 and 2010); in all other years the share was 0.8% of GDP. In the structure of total public expenditure in this 15-year period the share of government expenditure on cultural services was between 1.7% and 1.8%. Between 2011 (1.6%) and 2013 (1.3%) the share declined, while in 2014 it slightly grew to 1.5%. The values per capita show a different picture:
Table 1: Expenditure on culture and value added in culture, Slovenia
In 2014, the government spent on cultural services EUR 139 per person, while a person in Slovenia spent on culture on average EUR 157. Government expenditure on culture per person declined from EUR 156 in 2010 to EUR 139 in 2014, while in this period a person in Slovenia spent on average between EUR 151 and 157 per year.
However, culture is not only expenditure: the share of value added in the 2010–2013 period was 1.2% of GDP and in 2014 1.1% of GDP; the comparison takes into account only culture in the narrow sense, i.e. NACE Rev 2. 58, 59, 60, 90 and 91, and not the indirect impact of culture on accommodation and food service activities, tourism, trade, etc.