Experimental statistics: Climate change-related indicators, 2021
First release of climate change-related indicators for Slovenia
Due to the impact of climate change on our lives, and the need for faster adaptation to them, the Statistical Office, in accordance with international recommendations and with the aim of showing the situation in Slovenia, prepared for the first time an experimental set of climate change indicators.
Group 1: Drivers
The first group includes indicators showing human causes of climate change that deal with sources of emissions. Since 2010, the values of all five selected indicators decreased. The total primary energy supply indicator, which tells us how much energy was used in the country in the observed year, has decreased by 9.5% compared to 2010 and fell to just under 275,000 terajoules (TJ) in 2021. Between these two years, the share of fossil fuels in total primary energy supply decreased by 6.8 percentage points. In 2021, fossil fuels represented 57.5% in the energy supply. In this group of indicators, the value decreased the most (by 27.7%) for energy use by resident households per capita indicator, and decreased in 2020 to 35,7 gigajoules (GJ) per capita.
Group 2: Emissions
Changes in the field of greenhouse gas emissions are outlined by the second group of seven indicators, in which in 2021 compared to 2010 a downward trend was also detected in most of their values. The amount of total greenhouse gas emissions from the national economy decreased by 15% and fell to 16,111 kilotonnes of CO2 equivalent (kt CO2 eq) in 2021. The amounts of greenhouse gas emissions from production activities went down by 16% and from households by a tenth.
Group 3: Impacts
Climate changes reflect and have impacts on many ecosystems. The data of this group of indicators show that their values have increased recently. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in 2020 compared to 2010 the level of water stress in Slovenia increased by 0.5 of a percentage point. In 2020, the amount of abstracted water represented 6.8% of total available freshwater resources, which placed Slovenia 8th among the EU member states with the lowest burden on water resources. The mean air temperature anomaly in Slovenia, with respect to the 1961–1990 base period, exceeded 2 °C for the first time in 2014, while the highest temperature anomaly (2.6 °C) was measured last year.
Group 4: Mitigation
The coping of people in overcoming the consequences of climate conditions is measured by climate-change mitigation indicators. In 2021, the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption increased by 3.9 percentage points compared to 2010, and was 25% in 2021 (0.36% of this energy was provided through the mechanism of statistical transfer of renewable energy from another EU member state). The share of energy and transport related taxes in total taxes and social contributions has decreased by 1.7 percentage points compared to 2010 and represented 7.4% of total taxes in 2022. The difference between net CO2 emissions and CO2 sinks by forest land from the national territory decreased by almost 60% in 2021 compared to 2010, which was largely influenced by the consequences of the ice storm in 2014. In 2021, this difference was in favour of CO2 sinks from atmosphere and amounted to −2,942 kt CO2 eq.
Group 5: Adaptation
The last group of indicators shows human efforts to adapt to climate changes. The water use efficiency indicator measures change in water use efficiency over a certain period of time in the territory of the country and thus enables countries to assess the extent to which their economic growth depends on the use of their water resources. In Slovenia, compared to 2010, according to the FAO estimate, its value grew by 7.9% and reached 41 dollars per m3 of water in 2020. On the other hand, the share of utilised agricultural areas with organic farming or in conversion has increased by 4.7 percentage points compared to 2010 and reached 11.1% in 2022.
Selected climate change-related indicators, Slovenia
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The indicators focus on environmental, social and economic areas and are grouped into five areas related to climate change for ease of review and interpretation:
- Drivers: indicators show human causes of climate change that deal with sources of emissions
- Emissions: indicators show greenhouse gas emissions and their human causes
- Impacts: indicators show impacts of climate change on human and natural systems
- Mitigation: indicators show people's efforts to mitigate the consequences of climate change
- Adaptations: indicators show adaptation of people to the consequences of climate change
The Statistical Office prepared an experimental set of 20 indicators for Slovenia based on the current availability of data, the development of the indicator and its methodological framework.