An average agricultural holding in Slovenia is slightly larger than ten years ago
According to final data of the 2010 Agriculture Census there were 74,646 agricultural holdings in Slovenia in 2010 or almost 14% less than ten years ago. They used 474,432 hectares of agricultural area and bred 421,553 LSU (livestock units). In 2010 almost 79% of agricultural holdings in Slovenia bred livestock.
An average agricultural holding thus used 6.4 hectares of agricultural area and bred 5.6 LSU. In the past ten years the average size of agricultural holdings in Slovenia increased by 0.8 hectares of utilised agricultural area and 0.1 LSU.
Total labour input into agriculture in Slovenia, expressed in annual work units (AWU), was 77,012 AWU or 0.16 AWU per hectare of utilised agricultural area in 2010. A large decline in animal production
Animals were bred on 58,648 agricultural holdings. Cattle was bred on 36,119 agricultural holdings, pigs on 26,441, poultry on 36,240, horses on 5,948, sheep on 6,181, goats on 4,214 and rabbits on 8,051 agricultural holdings in 2010. There were also 2,392 agricultural holdings engaged in beekeeping.
Since 2000 more than 18,800 agricultural holdings quit animal production. The decrease in the number of agricultural holdings with animals is also the main reason that average LSU increased by almost 18%; from 6.1 in 2000 to 7.2 in 2010 (despite the decrease in the number of animals). 0.6
% less national area used for agriculture
In 2010 more than 474,430 hectares of agricultural land were used. This is 2% less than in 2000 and represents 0.6% of the territory of Slovenia. The reduction of agricultural land is mainly due to less surface area of permanent crops (by about 10% or almost 3,100 hectares) and permanent grassland (by 3% or more than 7,900 hectares).
The area of arable land in the period from 2000 to 2010 did not change significantly (only by 0.2%), only the size structure of arable land use changed. The share of holdings which used larger parts of arable land (10 hectares or more) increased by 2.6 percentage points; together they used almost 18 percentage points more arable land than ten years ago.
Average agricultural holding in Slovenia used 1.4 tractors
According to data of the 2010 Agriculture Census there were almost 102,000 tractors owned and in use on agricultural holdings in Slovenia.
Over 90% of tractors owned and in use on agricultural holdings in Slovenia had lower working power (less than 59 kW) in 2010. Data on the average age of registered tractors also indicate that the machinery on the average Slovenian farm is also quite old, as, for example average age of registered tractor is over 21 years. (Road vehicle at the end of the year (31.12.) by type of vehicle and age, Slovenia, annually).
Greater intensity of roundwood fellings on agricultural holdings
In 2010 there were more than 62,830 agricultural holdings which owned forest, or 18% less than in 2000. Of these, more than 42,620 (68%) felled trees. The share of agricultural holdings’ forests, according to the number of all agricultural holdings, decreased by almost 5% in the last ten years; however, the intensity of tree felling per agricultural holding with felled trees increased by almost 28%.
In the last decade total number of persons engaged in agriculture decreased by 19%
In 2010, more than 208,000 persons were engaged in agricultural activity, including agricultural enterprises and family farms. Their labour input, including those who worked seasonally or occasionally, was 77,012 annual work units (1 AWU = 1,800 hours per year). Even for those who represent regular labour on family farms, agricultural work often represents a secondary activity or help to other family members. For only 58,000 people working in agricultural enterprises or on family farms, agriculture was the activity on which in 2010 they spent 50% or more AWU. Among these there were about 32,300 persons who belong to the category of persons with the labour input from 0.75 up to and including 1 AWU and represent basic labour force in agriculture in Slovenia.
Compared to 2000 the total number of AWU decreased by 29%. The average value of AWU per agricultural holding in 2010 was 1.03 AWU and in 2000 1.25 AWU. The average value of AWU per hectare of utilized agricultural area was in 2000 0.22 AWU and in 2010 0.16 AWU.
In addition to the actual changes that have affected the reduction of labour input in agriculture, calculations of the AWU are influenced by changes in survey methodology. We think that in 2010 we better separated agricultural activity from other gainful activities carried out on family farms.
Forestry activity is present on almost every second family farm, gainful activities related to the agricultural holding on every sixth
On Slovenian family farms other gainful activities are also traditionally present; they are mostly performed by the same persons who are the labour force in agriculture. In 2010, more than 43,000 family farms were engaged in forestry activities, representing about 3,260 AWU.
For around 9,000 family farms, which spent more than 1,480 AWU for forestry activities, this activity represented the additional income, so they are included in the group of holdings which in 2010 carried out a gainful activity. In addition to forestry, the most common gainful activities on Slovenian family farms are tourism, wood processing, fruit and vegetables processing, and other activities related to food processing such as wine production. The scope of work in gainful activities on family farms in 2010 reached 1,700 AWU (excluding forestry as a gainful activity); together with forestry as a gainful activity the figure is 3,180 AWU.
The average age of the managers on family farms still the same as ten years ago
The average age of the managers of family farms is 57 years and has not changed since 2000. Female managers represent 27% of all managers, which is also the same as ten years ago.
Managers on family farms performed 45% of total labour input in agriculture, which is 3 percentage points more than in 2000. More than 43% of them (in 2000 58%) have only elementary education and they carried out more than 20% of total labour input in agriculture in Slovenia, which is 6 percentage points less than ten years ago.
The economic size of agricultural holdings
Agricultural holdings in Slovenia in 2010 reached a total standard output of more than EUR 915 million, which is an average of EUR 12,260 per holding, or almost EUR 11,900 per one AWU.
Agricultural holdings were the most numerous in the lower classes of economic size - up to EUR 8,000 (69% of all holdings), but these holdings utilised a smaller part of agricultural area (33%) and bred a smaller part of livestock (less than 20% of LSU) with respect to the entire country.
More detailed data (also at lower territorial levels) are available in the SI-STAT database. Data are classified by content and the territorial detail of data inside the tables.
Measuring the volume of labour input on agricultural holdings
When we measure the volume of labour input on agricultural holdings we consider any agricultural work, regardless of whether the final agricultural product is for market, own use or preserving the landscape. In doing so, we distinguish between primary agricultural activity and any other activity, even those that arise from this agricultural holding and are in the form of a product or service intended for market (gainful activities on agricultural holdings). Among gainful activities the only exception is forestry, for which due to national needs we collected and processed the data in full. We considered that (gainful) forestry activity on agricultural holdings in Slovenia represents a removal greater than 50 m3 of wood and wood sales greater than 10 m3. Less than this would be for own consumption, or should not represent an activity that is regularly carried out on the holding (i.e. is not a gainful activity).
The economic size of agricultural holdings, expressed in standard output (SO), is in accordance with the EU methodology defined as the monetary value of the agricultural gross production at the farm-gate price. The SO includes:
- sales, farm use, farm consumption and changes in stocks,
- both the value of the principal and secondary product.
The subsidies are not included.
The SO is a unit value: for each type of crop production, it corresponds to one hectare (or 100 m2 for mushrooms), and for livestock production it corresponds to one head of livestock (or 100 heads in the case of poultry or one hive for bees).
The »SO 2007« values are calculated according to the »direct observation method«, which means that for each category both the average quantities (calculated per observation unit) and the prices are estimated.
The SO »2007« coefficients are calculated as arithmetic average in EUR of expressed values for 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009.
Agricultural holdings are on the basis of the identified shares of SO for particular activities in the totals on each holding classified according to prescribed criteria in the appropriate type of farming.