Labour costs by socio-economic characteristics of employees and self-employed persons, Slovenia, 2016

In 2016 employment grew by 1.9 % and total labour costs by as much as 5.3 % over the previous year.

In 2016 employment grew by 1.9 % and total labour costs by as much as 5.3 % over the previous year. Average labour costs in 2016 amounted to EUR 23,606 and were 2.1% higher than a year earlier.

  • 12/20/2017
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In 2016 employment grew by 1.9 % and total labour costs by as much as 5.3 % over the previous year.

Average labour costs in 2016 amounted to EUR 23,606 and were 2.1% higher than a year earlier.

The average labour costs for employees and self-employed together in 2016 amounted to EUR 1,967 per month and increased by 3.3% compared to 2015. For employees the increase of average labour costs was the highest in manufacture of beverages (18.9%), air transport (11.0%) and public administration and defence (7.3%). They dropped the most in manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products (by 23.5%), water transport (by 12.0%) and telecommunication activities (by 10.6%).

Number of employees increased the most in production of basic metal products (by 23.7%), manufacture of other transport equipment (by 19.2%) and other professional, scientific and technical activities (by 13.2%). On the other hand it dropped the most in manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products (by 57,3 %), manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers (by 17.1%) and sewerage, waste collection, treatment and disposal activities (by 8.7%).

As regards education, the number of employees with tertiary eductation increased the most (by 4.4% or 11,397 persons), the number of employees with upper secondary eductation increased slightly less (by 2.3% or 9,503 persons), while the number of employees with basic eductation or less decreased (by 3.6% or 2.638 persons). The number of employed men increased by 2.6% and number of employed women by only 2.2%. As regards age; there was an increase in the group of younger 15-29 years and older (50 years and more) by 5.4 and 5.8% respectively. In the group 30-49 years the number of employees increased only by 0.3%.

Between employees the group that increased the most in number were younger males with tertiary education (by 10.1%). On the other hand the number of women in the middle age group (30-49 years) with only basic education or less decreased by most (9.0%).

Differences in labour costs between different socio-economic groups of employees decreased again in 2016

The trend of narrowing the gap between labour costs of different socio-economic groups continued in 2016. Among the studied characteristics (gender, age, educational attainment, activity), the educational attainment has the biggest influence on labour costs. In 2016 average labour costs for employees with tertiary education were  62.6% higher than those for employees with upper secondary education. Average labour costs for employees with upper secondary education were 22.4 % higher than those for employees with basic education or less. The difference decreased in 2016 by 0.3 percentage points for employees with upper secondary and by 0.6 percentage points for employees with basic education or less.

Different growth rates in labour costs caused the narrowing of the gap between labour groups; the labour costs for employees with basic education or less and upper secondary education increased on average in 2016 in comparison to 2015 by 3.0% (basic education or less) and by 2.5% (upper secondary education), while for the tertiary educated they increased by 2.3%. The difference between labour costs for employed man and women and regarding age narrowed as well.

In 2016 number of employees grew by 2.4%, while number of self-employed persons decreased by 0.04%

After the slight growth in 2014 and 2015 the number of self-employed persons decreased by 83 persons (or by 0.04%) in 2016. The highest growth rate was observed in information and communication activities (by 7.2%) and their number dropped most in Transportation and storage (by 3.2%).

Self-employed persons (entrepreneurs, farmers, persons employed by contracts) generate the operating surplus/mixed income on the basis of their work and capital. In 2016 self-employed persons generated EUR 3,231 million of operating surplus/mixed income, which was a 2.2% increase compared to 2015. The labour costs for self-employed persons were estimated at EUR 2,746 million, which was a 4.7% increase compared to 2015. Thus, operating surplus/mixed income for self-employed persons increased less than their labour costs.

The ratio between labour costs and income is also influenced by the structure of the self-employed by activities. The structure of the self-employed by activities in 2016 changed slightly; in activities where the labour costs represent a relatively low share of total income the share of the self-employed decreased more than it increased in activities with a higher share. The share of labour costs within operating surplus/mixed income therefore increased from 83.0% to 84.7%.

Average labour costs of employees by educational attainment and activities , Slovenia, 2016
Average labour costs of employees by educational attainment and activities , Slovenia, 2016
Source: SURS
Growth of number of employees by educational attainment and activities, Slovenia, 2016
Educational attainment
TotalBasic or lessUpper secondaryTertiary
annual growth rates (%)
Activity - TOTAL2.4-3.62.34.4
A Agriculture, forestry and fishing-3.6-6.7-8.314.6
B Mining and quarrying-2.7-1.0-2.5-4.0
C Manufacturing3.2-3.43.67.7
D Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply-1.5-2.2-1.7-1.1
E Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities-5.1-9.9-4.9-1.6
F Construction-1.1-8.30.30.3
G Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles1.8-4.90.76.0
H Transportation and storage4.6-3.25.35.9
I Accommodation and food service activities5.4-6.17.08.8
J Information and communication2.7-10.1-1.56.0
K Financial and insurance activities-1.6-12.6-6.11.5
L Real estate activities2.628.911.4-12.4
M Professional, scientific and technical activities2.72.30.74.0
N Administrative and support service activities7.01.87.68.8
O Public administration and defence; compulsory social security0.4-9.5-2.02.0
P Education1.5-4.0-0.42.5
Q Human health and social work activities4.1-2.43.45.7
R Arts, entertainment and recreation3.1-3.21.45.1
S Other service activities2.61.52.43.0
T Activities of households as employers-0.6-0.6-0.6-0.6
Source: SURS
Detailed data and time series are available in the SI-STAT database.
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